End Notes

  1. Sidhu, Noorjit, et al. Tuberculosis, Human Rights and the Law. A Compendium of Case Law. Chicago: University of Chicago Law School, International Human Rights Clinic, 2017.
  2. Duger, Angela, ed. Health and Human Rights Resource Guide. 5th ed. Cambridge: Harvard University, Francois-Xavier Bagnoud Center for Health and Human Rights, 2013.
  3. Starke, Jeffrey, and Andrea Cruz. “The Global Nature of Childhood Tuberculosis.” Pediatrics. Mar 2014, 133(3): e725.
  4. USAID. “Technical Brief: Tackling TB Care Among Children.” Published online April 2013.
  5. Marais, B.J., and Schaaf H.S. “Childhood tuberculosis: an emerging and previously neglected problem.” Infect Dis Clin North Am. Sep 2010, 24(3): 727-49.
  6. Cruz, Andrea T. and Jeffrey R. Starke. “What’s in a number? Accurate estimates of childhood tuberculosis.” The Lancet Global Health. Aug 2014, 2(8): 432-33.
  7. WHO. Global Tuberculosis Report 2017.
  8. Esposito, Susanna, Claudia Tagliabue, and Samantha Bosis. “Tuberculosis in Children.” Mediterr J Hematol Infect Dis. 2013, 5(1): e2013064.
  9. Ibid.
  10. Jenkins, Helen, et al. “Incidence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis disease in children: systematic review and global estimates.” The Lancet. May 2014, 383(9928): 1572-79.
  11. Dodd PJ, Yuen CM, Sismanidis C, Seddon JA, Jenkins HE. “The global burden of tuberculosis mortality in children: a mathematical modelling study. Lancet Glob Health. 2017 Sep;5(9):e898-e906
  12. Dodd PJ, Sismanidis C, Seddon JA. “Global burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis in children: a mathematical modelling study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2016 Oct;16(10):1193-1201.
  13. GBD Global Tuberculosis Collaborators. “The global burden of tuberculosis: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015.” Lancet Infect Dis. 2018, 18: 261-84.
  14. World Health Organization. “Tuberculosis mortality nearly halved since 1990.” Published online October 28, 2015.
  15. Han-Kuang Hsu, Katharine. “Should primary tuberculosis in children continue to be neglected.” The Journal of Pediatrics. 1956, 48(4): 501-19.
  16. Marais, B.J., and Schaaf H.S.
  17. Lestari, Trisasi, et al. “High caseload of childhood tuberculosis in hospitals on Java Island, Indonesia: a cross sectional study.” BMC Public Health. 2011, 11: 784.
  18. Starke, Jeffrey. “Improving Tuberculosis Care for Children in High-Burden Settings.” Pediatrics. Oct 2014, 134(4): 655-57.
  19. Shobha, Shukla. “After years of neglect, growing attention to TB in children in Asia Pacific.” Citizen News Service. Published online September 2, 2015.
  20. Piccini, Paola, et al. “Clinical peculiarities of tuberculosis.” BMC Infectious Diseases. 2014, 14(Suppl 1): S4.
  21. Gomez-Pastrana, D. “Tuberculosis in children – is PCR the diagnostic solution?” Clinical Microbiology and Infection. Sep 2002, 8(9): 541-44.
  22. Starke, Jeffrey, and Andrea Cruz. “The Global Nature of Childhood Tuberculosis.”
  23. USAID. “Technical Brief: Tackling TB Care Among Children.”
  24. Marais, B.J., and Schaaf H.S. “Childhood tuberculosis.”
  25. Médecins sans Frontières and Stop TB Partnership. Out of Step 2017. TB Policies in 29 Countries. 3rd ed. Geneva, msfaccess.org, 2017.
  26. World Health Organization. Global Tuberculosis Report 2017. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2017.
  27. Santos, Fabiana Cristina Fulco, et al. “Bone tuberculosis: a case report on child.” Revista da Sociedade Brasiliera de Medicina Tropical. Mar Apr 2013, 46(2): 249-51.
  28. Dodd PJ, Yuen CM, Sismanidis C, Seddon JA, Jenkins HE.
  29. Cao, Hui, Yicang Zhou, and Fred Brauer. “Estimates of tuberculosis progression rate of children in China. Journal of Biological Dynamics. Mar 2012, 6(2): 663-73.
  30. UNAIDS. Fact Sheet – World AIDS Day 2017. Web.
  31. USAID. “Orphans and Vulnerable Children Affected by HIV and AIDS.” Last updated February 23, 2016.
  32. Pawlowski, Andrzej, et al. “Tuberculosis and HIV Co-Infection.” PLoS Pathog. Feb 2012, 8(2): e1002464.
  33. Kikuchi, Kimiyo, et al. “High Risk of ART Non-Adherence and Delay of ART Initiation among HIV Positive Double Orphans in Kigali, Rwanda.” PLoS One. Jul 2012, 7(7): e41998.
  34. Kikuchi, Kimiyo, et al. “What makes orphans in Kigali, Rwanda, non-adherent to antiretroviral therapy? Perspectives of their caregivers.” J Int AIDS Soc. 2014, 17: 19310.
  35. Starke and Cruz. “The Global Nature of Childhood Tuberculosis.”
  36. UNICEF. “Protection, Care, And Support For Children Affected By HIV And AIDS.” Last updated January 2018.
  37. WHO. “Tuberculosis & Tobacco. A Strong Association.” Published online September 2009.
  38. The Union. “New Study Shows Smoking Tobacco Doubles Risk of Recurrent Tuberculosis.” Published online March 24, 2014.
  39. Prasad, R., et al. “A case-control study of tobacco smoking and tuberculosis in India.” Ann Thorac Med. Oct Dec 2009, 4(4): 208-10.
  40. Owili, Patrick, et al. “Indoor second-hand tobacco smoke and risk of under-five mortality in 23 sub-Saharan Africa countries: A population based study and meta-analysis.” PLoS One. May 2017, 12(5): e0177271.
  41. Nishio, Akihiro, et al. “Systematic review of school tobacco prevention programs in African countries from 2000 to 2016.” PLoS One. Feb 2018, 13(2): e0192489.
  42. “Child Smokers Are On The Rise In India As Study Finds Over 6.25 Lakh Kids Smoking Daily.” India Times, Mar 2018.
  43. Centers for Disease Control. “Global Smoking.” Last updated February 8, 2011.
  44. Baker, Meghan, et al. “The impact of diabetes on tuberculosis treatment outcomes: A systematic review.” BMC Med. 2011, 9: 81.
  45. Faurholt-Jepsen, D., et al. “Diabetes is a strong predictor of mortality during tuberculosis treatment: a prospective cohort study among tuberculosis patients from Mwanza, Tanzania.” Trop Med Int Health. Jul 2013, 18(7): 822-9.
  46. WHO. “Diabetes.” Last updated November 2017.
  47. D’Adamo, Ebe, and Sonia Caprio. “Type 2 Diabetes in Youth: Epidemiology and Pathophysiology.” Diabetes Care. May 2011, 34(Suppl 2): S161-S165.
  48. Boyd, Bret. “Urbanization and the Mass Movement of People to Cities.” Grayline Group Web site.
  49. Demographia. Demographia World Urban Areas. 14th ed. April 2018.
  50. Glaeser, Edward. “A World of Cities: The Causes and Consequences of Urbanization in Poorer Countries.” Journal of the European Economic Association. Oct 2014, 12(5): 1154-1199.
  51. Dodman, David, et al. “African Urbanisation and Urbanism: Implications for risk accumulation and reduction.” International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction. Dec 2017, 26: 7-15.
  52. Neiderud, Carl-Johan. “How urbanization affects the epidemiology of emerging infectious diseases.” Infect Ecol Epidemiol. 2015, 5: 27060.
  53. Escombe, A. et al. “Natural Ventilation for the Prevention of Airborne Contagion.” PLoS Med. Feb 2007, 4(2): e68.
  54. Rai, Sarju Sing. “Global Explosion of Slums: The Next Biggest Planetary Health Challenge.” Amplify. April 22, 2017.
  55. Schaaf, HS, et al. “Adult-to-child transmission of tuberculosis: household or community contact?” Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. May 2003, 7(5): 426-31.
  56. United Nations. “Convention on the Rights of the Child.” November 1989. Web.
  57. Council of Europe. “European Social Charter (revised).” March 1996. Web.
  58. Organization of American States. “American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man.” 1948. Web.
  59. Organization of American States. “American Convention on Human Rights.” November 1969. Web.
  60. African Commission on Human and Peoples’ Rights. “African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights.” June 1981. Web.
  61. United Nations. “International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.” December 1966. Web.
  62. United Nations. “International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights.” December 1966. Web.
  63. Global Health and Human Rights Database: B., A. S. et al. v. DIBA; Alyne da Silva Pimentel Teixeira v. Brazil; Amit Ahuja v. Union of India; Barilo v. Ukraine; Canadian Doctors for Refugee Care, et al. v. Attorney General of Canada et al; Municipality of Caxias do Sul v. Vinícius Carpeggiani; Case AI 826577/RS; Case T-974/10; Case T-760/08; Case 1157/2007-II; Case 211; State of Mato Grosso v. Marina de Almeida Andrade; Case T-081/04.
  64. Burton, Rosie, et al. “Prevention of mother-to-child transmission in South Africa: an ever-changing landscape.” Obstetric Medicine. Feb 2015, 8(1): 5-12.
  65. Global Health and Human Rights Database: Case 2945-2003-AA/TC.
  66. Global Health and Human Rights Database: A.V. et al. v. Estado Nacional [Ministerio de Salud de la Nación- Programa Nacional de Lucha contra el S.I.D.A.].
  67. Global Health and Human Rights Database: Case 108-2010-R.
  68. Duger, Angela, ed. “Table 15: TB and the Rights of Children.”
  69. Sidhu et al.
  70. Amiri, Arshia, and Ulf-G Gerdtham. “Impact of Maternal and Child Health on Economic Growth: New Evidence Based Granger Causality and DEA Analysis.” WHO Web site, Mar 2013.
  71. O’Hare, BA, et al. “Economic growth and child health in Sub Saharan Africa.” Malawi Med J. Dec 2012, 24(4): 87-8.
  72. Bloom, David, and Jeffrey G. Williamson. “Demographic Transitions and Economic Miracles in Emerging Asia.” World Bank Economic Review. Sep 1998, 12(3): 419-55.
  73. Kirigia, Joses, and Rosenabi Muthuri. “Productivity losses associated with tuberculosis deaths in the World Health Organization African region.” Infect Dis Poverty. 2016, 5: 43.
  74. Grimard, Franque, and Guy Harling. “The Impact of Tuberculosis on Economic Growth.” 2015. Published online.
  75. Laurence, Yoko, Ulla K. Griffiths, and Anna Vassall. “Costs to Health Services and the Patient of Treating Tuberculosis: A Systematic Literature Review.” Pharmacoeconomics. 2015, 33(9): 939-55.
  76. Tanimura, Tadayuki, et al. “Financial burden for tuberculosis patients in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.” Eur Respir J. Jun 2014, 43(6): 1763-75.
  77. Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis, et al. “Affordability of adult HIV/AIDS treatment in developing countries: modelling price determinants for a better insight of the market functioning.” J Int AIDS Soc. 2016, 19(1): 20619.
  78. Tagar, Elya, et al. “Multi-Country Analysis of Treatment Costs for HIV/AIDS (MATCH): Facility-Level ART Unit Cost Analysis in Ethiopia, Malawi, Rwanda, South Africa and Zambia.” PLoS One. Nov 2014, 9(11): e108304.
  79. Vu, Lung, et al. “Annual cost of antiretroviral therapy among three service delivery models in Uganda.” J Int AIDS Soc. Jul 2016, 19(5Suppl 4): 20840.
  80. Lubell, Yoel, et al. “Cost-effectiveness of parenteral artesunate for treating children with severe malaria in sub-Saharan Africa.” Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2011, 89: 504-12.
  81. Brouwer, Elizabeth, et al. “Provider costs for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and related conditions in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review.” BMC Public Health. Nov 2015, 15: 1183.
  82. Vassall, Anna. “Post-2015 Consensus: Health Perspective – Tuberculosis. Benefits and Costs of the Tuberculosis Targets for the Post-2015 Development Agenda.” Copenhagen Consensus Center. Published online 2016.
  83. Nguyen, Hoa Thi Minh, et al. “Strengthening Tuberculosis Control Overseas: Who Benefits?” Value in Health. March 2015, 18:2, 180-88; A.R. Measham, G. Alleyne, A. Mills, et al. Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press, 2006.
  84. Edel, Frédéric. “The length of civil and criminal proceedings in the case-law of the European Court of Human Rights.” Human rights files, No. 16. Council of Europe Publishing, 2007.
  85. Maximizing Justice, Minimizing Delay. Streamlining Procedures of the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. Austin, The University of Texas School of Law Human Rights Clinic, December 2011.
  86. Fox, Greg, et al. “Household-Contact Investigation for Detection of Tuberculosis in Vietnam.” N Engl J Med. 2018, 378: 221-229
  87. Jerene, Degu, et al. “The yield of a tuberculosis household contact investigation in two regions of Ethiopia.” The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. August 2015, 19(8): 898-903.
  88. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “The Use of Preventive Therapy for Tuberculous Infection in the United States, Recommendations of the Advisory Committee for Elimination of Tuberculosis.”  Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. May 18, 1990 / 39(RR-8): 9-12.
  89. TB Alliance and Unitaid. New Pathways for Childhood TB Treatment: Lessons from the STEP-TB Project. October 2017. Published online.
  90. Singh, Maanvi, and Fran Kritz. “Could A New Berry-Flavored Pill Help Stop Childhood TB?” NPR, December 21, 2015.
  91. Johnson, Madeleine. “Cepheid Delays Launch of Omni Point-of-Care MDx System.” Genome Web, April 29, 2016.
  92. Kasa, Tom S, et al. “Evaluation of Xpert MTB/RIF assay in children with presumed pulmonary tuberculosis in Papua New Guinea.” Paediatr Int Child Health. 2017 May 11:1-9.
  93. The Republic of Uganda Ministry of Health. “National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme. Revised National Strategic Plan 2015/16-2019/20.” Published online June 2017.
  94. Detjen, Anne, et al. “The upcoming UN general assembly resolution on tuberculosis must also benefit children.” Lancet Global Health. May 2018, 6(5): e485-e486.
  95. WHO. “Contact investigation.” Published online 2012.
  96. WHO. “Tuberculosis Diagnostics Technology Landscape.” 5th Ed. Published online May 2017.
  97. Malhotra, S., et al. “From availability to uptake: planning for the introduction of new, child-friendly anti-tuberculosis formulations.” Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. Dec 2015, 19(12): S32-8.
  98. Assebe, Lelisa, et al. “The effect of isoniazid preventive therapy on incidence of tuberculosis among HIV-infected clients under pre-ART care, Jimma, Ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study.” BMC Public Health. Apr 2015, 15: 346.
  99. Rebecca, Lester, et al. “Barriers to implementation of isoniazid preventive therapy in HIV clinics: a qualitative study.” AIDS. Nov 2010, 24(suppl 5): S45-S48.
  100. Fox, GJ, et al. “Preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis infection – the promise and the challenges.” Int J Infect Dis. Mar 2017, 56: 68-76.
  101. Roy, A., et al. “Effect of BCG vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children: systematic review and meta-analysis.” BMJ. 2014, 349: g4643.
  102. Andersen, P. “TB vaccines: progress and problems.” Trends Immunol. Mar 2001, 22(3); 160-8.
  103. Knight, Gwenan, et al. “Impact and cost-effectiveness of new tuberculosis vaccines in low- and middle-income countries.” PNAS. Oct 2014, 111(43): 15520-25.
  104. Taneja, R., et al. “Pediatric formulations of second-line anti-tuberculosis medications: Challenges and considerations.” Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. Dec 2015, 19(12): 61-8. EAP on Childhood Tuberculosis
  105. “World TB Day: Children with MDR-TB should not be left behind.” European Academy of Paediatrics. Published online March 24, 2017.
  106. Nachman, Sharon, et al. “Towards earlier inclusion of Children in Tuberculosis (TB) drugs trials: Consensus statements from an Expert Panel.” Lancet Infect Dis. Jun 2015, 15(6): 711-20.


AfCHPR African Court on Human and Peoples’ Rights
AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
ACHPR African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights
ACHR American Convention on Human Rights
ADRDM American Declaration of the Rights and Duties of Man
BCG Bacillus Calmette-Guérin
CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child
DETECT Child TB Decentralise TB services and Engage Communities to Transform lives of Children with TB
ECHR European Court of Human Rights
ESCR Revised European Social Charter
HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus
ICCPR International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
ICESCR International Covenant on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights
MSF Médecins Sans Frontières
R&D Research and Development
RH Rifampicin and Isoniazid (in combination)
TB Tuberculosis
UN United Nations
WHO World Health Organization